Biochemistry studies the chemical structure of living organisms and the chemical changes that take place in them. Biochemistry incorporates chemical knowledge into the science of biology if it seeks answers to the question of what elements and molecules the living organism is made of and the chemical organization of living organism. Further, this discipline studies processes of transformation or decomposition in the living organism, the energetic conditions, the mechanisms of speed, direction, or rate of transformations.
The importance of chemistry in the body function was already known in the time medical-chemist Paracelsus (1493-1541). However, unfortunately, the theory that did not recognize the material unity of the was obstacle to the development of biochemistry. This meant that it considered living matter to be different from non-living, which is why the laws of nature do not apply to life processes. Yet biochemistry has made life processes and their material foundations a central issue.
There are many examples of classical biochemistry studies. For instance, In Antioine Lavoisier's experiments showed that the heat produced by the living organism was the same as the nutrient was burned outside the living organization. In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed its hypothesis using oxalic acid and urea, based on inorganic starting materials, and there is no need for vitality to the creation of the living material.
Louis Pasteur was the first to prove the existence of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in 1857 when he wrote the dissertation of milk for the fermentation of milk and showed that the evolution of sugar into lactic acid was caused by yeast cells, indicating that the transformation was depends on a life process. Indeed, the heat-treatment process that destroys pathogenic microorganisms in certain foods and beverages including milk is called pasteurization due Pasteur discoveries.
The studies of Theodor Svedberg in 1925 contributed greatly to the separation of components of cell-free systems and the study of macromolecules. In the field of chemistry, sensitive analytical methods have been developed that have made it possible to chemically analyze the substrates and products used by each enzyme and to measure enzyme activity. You should remember that enzymes act as a catalyst in living organisms.
Furthermore, the enzymes involved in energy production are arranged in a rigid structure bound to membranes. Albert Szent-Györgyi demonstrated that certain di- and tricarboxylic acids greatly accelerate the intensity of cellular respiration. He discovered the ascorbic acid also known as vitamin C.
The work was later continued by Hans Adolf Krebs, who extended the individual steps and placed them in a cycle, and in 1937 wrote his correct assumption for the tricarboxylic acid cycle, commonly known as the citrate cycle or Szent Györgyi-Krebs cycle.
Based on the definition of biochemistry, it looks to understand the chemical processes in biological systems, and it follows that any other basic and applied scope that it is less or greater, applies its biochemical results and test methods. Based on these, the number and spectrum of application areas is extremely wide, so it is the basis of biochemistry, as well as physician and pharmaceutical science, but also part of animal husbandry, crop production, food technology and ecology. But it may also occur in criminology, water management and chemical and technical sciences.
Information compiled by Dezső Sándor.