July 04, 2022 2 min read

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Eukaryotes are also living organism formed by cells with a nucleus. A true nucleus means that the nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by a nucleus. Most of its genetic material is found in the form of a chromosome. The cell chamber of cells separates into interiors because it has a cell part bounded by a membrane. Anyway, the word eukaryote is of Greek origin, “eu” means true, while “karyote” means nut or seed. So, this is means a real seed. Animals, plants, algae, and fungi are all eukaryotes, but simpler organisms than bacteria have no seeds, so these are called prokaryotes. Eukaryotes developed in the Proterozoic, the oldest known being Grypania, a 30-millimeter-long, coiled, unbranched fiber. These cells are usually much larger than prokaryotes, up to ten times larger. The inner membrane and structure are called organelles. May be one or more cellular.

Origin of the eukaryotes

Just like dogs, people are eukaryotes. The three most important cellular organs in a eukaryotic cell are the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. They have a double membrane to protect them. Miles stone in the evolution of eukaryotic cells because eukaryotes include all complex cell and almost all multicellular organisms. Probably, a biological population was the first common ancestor of the first eukaryote. The las common ancestor is LECA. Eukaryotes have a number of properties that distinguish them from prokaryotes, including the endomembrane system and unique biological pathways such as the synthesis of sterane synthesis.

These are the only organisms that have a cytoplasm. The most striking difference between a eukaryote and a prokaryote is, of course, their size, because while the former is about 10 to 100 micrometers in length, a prokaryote is only 1 to 3 micrometers. But the other significant difference is that eukaryotes have organelles, while prokaryotes do not. Thus, they are much more complex, so it is much more interesting that while there are so many differences between them, scientists believe that they evolved from prokaryotic cells about a billion and a half years ago.

The division of cell usually works asexually, with mitosis, which mean that the cell divides its duplicated genome into two equal progeny cells. Thus, the process allows each daughter nucleus to receive a copy of each chromosome. The life cycle of most such organism also includes sexual reproduction, alternating between the haploid phase, where only one copy of each chromosome is present in each cell. The other phase, diploid, is formed by the fusion of two haploid gametes into a zygote that can divide by mitosis. Animals do not have a multicellular haploid phase, but each planet generation may consist of a haploid and diploid multicellular phase.

More information: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EMDuf_kBJcs

Information compiled by: Dezső Sándor

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